Modem Manager GUI is a modem usb modem replacement application that you use when surfing, built with gtk + allows this application to run smoothly and efficiently, and this application is very compatible with all modems you use, maybe for some features there may be no can, like sms, ussd, traffic or anything else.
Modem Manager GUI is very compatible with device modem, but may not be compatible with undetectable modem in linux like my modem, most huawei modem for linux. But for some modems such as smartfreen, telkomsel flash, maxis or others can be compatible because it has a plug and play feature in its device.
But Modem Manager GUI does not have dial up feature to connect to the internet, this is different from the built-in modem software that must have dial up feature, but I will try to understand the source code of the application so that I can membuild the newest feature feature, but for the solution you can use wvdial or directly connect to the internet via the sidebar in the network icon, but you must make dial up first in the network settings.
Here are some features of Modem Manager GUI that is highly recommended for use as modem manager substitute mobile partner or other similar software modem built for use in linux.
Internet Protocol Address or often abbreviated IP is a series of binary numbers between 32-bit to 128-bit which is used as an identification address for each host computer in the Internet network. The length of this number is 32-bit (for IPv4 or IP version 4), and 128-bit (for IPv6 or IP version 6) indicating the address of the computer on a TCP / IP-based Internet network. Then for IP addressing system is divided into two, namely IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP version 6 (IPv6).
On this occasion I will invite all buddies to discuss about how to configure or configure IP Address on linux debian server. Previously my friend need to prepare linux debian server that has been installed in your PC. well, I will exemplify this tutorial with practice using virtualbox, actually just the same way kok with the original. Okay before What is the purpose of Addressing IP Address it? So, the purpose of IP addressing is intended to computer computers (Server and Client) can be connected to each other.
Okay we just start from turning on the computer that has been installed Debian Server. Then we will give the IP address for the server computer. Once turned on and logged in as root, type the “nano / etc / network / interfaces” command to enter the Debian IP address configuration. For more details, see the picture below.
Then after typing this command, please press “enter” to enter Debian IP address configuration. For Debian IP address, can be set according to the wishes and needs of my friend. But for the IP network, netmask, and broadcast we must follow the rules of Subnetting (do not miss it!), I’m sure you all know how to use subnetting rules. For example as below.
To configure the IP Address address, enter the configuration as given white box in the above picture sob. If so, then press “Ctrl + X” simultaneously then press “y” then “enter” to save the configuration you made earlier.
In the next step, type the “service networking restart” command to restart the system and to have the configuration pre-installed. After restarting the network interface it will show a notice like the picture below which means the restart process is successful and the IP has changed.
Then if the notification appears like the picture before, then we will continue to the process of checking IP address. First, we check it from his Debian Server computer. The way we just type the command “ifconfig” like this.
If the IP address is correct, we proceed to the IP addressing process on the Client computer (I’m using Windows 7). For how to configure it, see picture below.
If already entered in window like picture above, click “Properties”.
After clicking “Properties” window will appear like this. Since the IP used is IP v4, then we click “Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP / IPv4)”. Then, the IP configuration must be aligned and in line with the IP on the Server so that they can be connected to each other.
When you’re done configuring your Client’s IP computer, click “Ok” and then close the IP configuration window. Then we will continue to check the connection between the server with the client. The trick, open “Command Prompt” in Windows (Client) and then type “ping 192.168.18.1”. The IP written is the IP of the Server (192.168.18.1). If successful it will be like the one marked with a yellow box. IP Address is the IP that I created on my server, so my friend can create a different IP and to check using ping adjusted only.
If it fails, then the result will be like this omdimas.
Well, if the result is like the first Command Prompt image, then the configuration IP address that has been buddy for successful and running well. Hopefully what I explained above, my friend can all understand and immediately practice. Thank you and good luck.
Java and Java’s Virtual Machine (JVM) has been widely used for many software needs. Java is a platform that can run applications (Java based) on a particular operating system by interpreting a number of bytecodes. Not only required by a developer or programmer, Java is also required for ordinary users to run various Java-based applications contained on the computer, by utilizing Java Runtime.
There are different ways to install Java on multiple platforms. Unlike Windows, how to install Java on Ubuntu is usually done through the terminal. Before installing Java, it’s a good idea to check if your Ubuntu is already installed Java or not. If you have, at least you can find out which version is installed on your Ubuntu. If possible you would like to reinstall for the latest version of Java. There are two ways to install java on Ubuntu Linux, ie installation by default and specific installations.
# 1 How To Install Java By Default
For how to install by default, you can follow the steps below.
1. Open a terminal on your Ubuntu. Update to update your Ubuntu to be up-to-date, with the command:
sudo apt-get update
2. Then, do the following command to install JDK:
sudo apt-get install default-jdk
Type Y to continue if there is a question as indicated by the arrow in the image below.
and the commands below to install JRE.
sudo apt-get install default-jre
You need to know, if you have installed JDK command, then you no longer need to run the command to install JRE. Because, in JDK already have JRE.
JDK (Java Development Kit) is a Java install package that is usually required by programmers by utilizing the compiler contained in it to run the bytecode of the program. In JDK there is also Java Runtime to run the application. Unlike the JRE (Java Runtime Environment) that can only be used to run Java-based applications. JRE there is no compiler that can run bytecode when you write a program.
# 2 How to Install Java Specifically
There are two ways to install Java specifically, by using the openjdk and oracle commands. This specific installation aims to install the desired Java version as needed. For example, an Ubuntu user requires Java 7 to be installed on the system, then the user can directly use the openjdk-7- command.
Similarly, if you want to mengintall oracle Java 8, the command used is specific. The steps of installing the above two ways are not much different. There are only differences in the command.
The following steps to install Java openjdk.
Actually, openjdk and default Java types are the same. Openjdk is the default Java type that is used to install Java specifically as per the user’s wish.
1. Type the update command on the terminal to make sure your Ubuntu is up-to-date.
sudo apt-get update
2. Then type the command for the Java installation. For example, you want to install Java 8. Then the command looks like this:
sudo apt-get install openjdk-8-jdk
or if you want to install Java SE Runtime Environment:
sudo apt-get install openjdk-8-jre
If you want to install a different version of Java, you just replace the number 8 on the command in accordance with the version number you want.
3. Wait until the installation process is complete.
Steps to install Java oracle.
1. Before installing the Java oracle, you must add the Oracle PPA to your repository. Type the command below:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa: webupd8team / java
2. After that, update with command:
sudo apt-get update
3. Next, you can type the installation command for the Java version you want. Just like openjdk, you just need to replace the Java version of the oracle version of the following command with the version number you want. Here I am installing Java oracle 8.
sudo apt-get install oracle-java8-installer
4. Wait for the installation to complete. If there is a configuration request like the image below, select OK by pressing Enter.
5. Navigate to the Yes option, then press Enter on the keyboard.
6. Wait for the installation to complete.
How to install Java on Ubuntu. You can check your install results by typing the command:
From the results of the command you will know which java version is installed on your Ubuntu. Java version usually begins with the number 1. then proceed with the version (in numbers) Java successfully installed. If you have other questions or comments about some how to install java in Linux above, please input in the comment field below. thanks.
Flash format is an activity that aims to empty the files stored in it. This method is done for various reasons such as want to copy new files, remove the virus, and others.
Flash format in Linux is not much different from the format of flash in Windows. It’s just that there are various ways of formatting that you can do. You can use your own way depending on your understanding of which is easy.
In this discussion I will use two of the most common and easy to use to format the flash in Linux, that is how to format the flash manually and through the terminal. The type of Linux that I use here is Ubuntu 16.04 desktop version.
How to Format Flashdisk in Ubuntu Linux
1. Manual Flashdisk Format
How to format the flash manually here I use is the most frequently used by the user. The steps are as follows.
1. Open your file explorer or directory. Click on the flash you want formatted for if your flasdisk is read, what is it, and are you sure to format it.
2. After that, right click on your flash device as pointed at the picture. Click Format to empty your flash.
3. Next there are the options (Erase, Type, and Format) that you can customize to your needs on this Volume Format. You can follow the default selections as shown.
In the Erase section I select ‘Dont overwrite existing data (Quick)’. This option makes the formatting process much faster. For Type here I choose FAT format but you can choose another like NTFS. Then, write a new name for your flash device in the Name field. Next, click the Format button.
4. After that, a confirmation will appear again to convince you to format the correct flash. At this stage will be displayed type of your flash device as indicated by the arrows in the picture. The flash that I format is branded hp and 16GB capacity. Click the Format button to start the process of formatting the flash.
5. Format your flash has been successful. You can check it by reopening your flashdisk directory and see that the flash is empty.
2. Format flash through Terminal
In addition to manually, you can format the flash through the terminal. How to? Follow the steps below.
1. First, you can check the contents of your flash first to make sure you format it. Here, my flash name is My FD.
2. Open your terminal. You can use the shortcut by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Type command: sudo fdisk -l The above command aims to know the address of your flash. The command uses the word sudo, where the terminal will ask for your input password first. Enter your password, then the terminal will show the device specifications installed on your computer.
The connected device that is the flash that we will format. You can make sure the device is your flash by observing its Size. In the example picture above is written 15.1 G, means that the flash that will format me loaded as much as 15.1 GB. Then, remember the address. The address is listed in the Device field, where in the above picture it says / dev / sdb1.
3. Next, use the flash address we have previously known to run the umount command. This command aims to release the pendrive is related. Flashdisk that is related you can see in the file explorer where the name of the flash there are arrow keys like the image below.
Use the command below to remove your flash. sudo umount / dev / sdb1
4. Next, you can type the command like below to format the flash. sudo mkfs.vfat / dev / sdb1
In the command there is the word ‘vfat’ where FAT states the format of the flash after it is formatted. You can replace it with ntfs, hfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, and others based on your needs such mcfol.
5. Finally, your flash is successfully formatted. To check it please open your explorer file and prove your flash is empty.
Before formatting the flash, make sure no important files will be deleted. Back up previous data if you are worried about losing your files. That’s how to format flashdisk on Linux Ubuntu with ease. Please respond to the comment field below. thanks.
In this tutorial, I will explain how to install Ubuntu linux for beginners. Ubuntu is a complete Linux-based operating system that is freely available and also very popular in the world and has considerable support from community and professional experts. Why is Ubuntu so popular and still the preferred operating system among users? There are several reasons:
Ubuntu is an open source OS that means you do not need a license and crack technique to use it.
Ubuntu is an operating system that is often used for servers.
Very little chance of virus attack.
User Interface on Ubuntu is more soft and clean so as to provide convenience to the user.
Time to shutdown and boot is relatively faster, and so on.
In this tutorial, I will install Ubuntu 16.04.4 LTS Desktop OS using bootable flashdisk. For other versions, the way is almost the same anyway, not much different, so you do not have to worry. You can install the latest version of Ubuntu through the following link: https://www.ubuntu.com/download/desktop.
I suggest you listen to the installation steps that I will explain so there is no error when you install Ubuntu especially those who want to dual boot for example you already have a previous Windows OS then you want to install ubuntu on the same laptop / PC. Because if you make a mistake when selecting options in the installation process or when creating partitions, the data on your Windows OS can be lost / formatted.
For more details on how to install linux Ubuntu on PC / laptop, let’s see the explanation below.
How to Install Ubuntu Linux for Beginners
Before installing Ubuntu 16.04.4 LTS desktop operating system, there are some things you need to prepare and note:
Prepare a blank flash with a storage capacity of at least 4GB.
If you are going to install Ubuntu on a laptop, make sure your battery does not run out during the installation process by plugging in your charger immediately.
Prepare software to create bootable USB flashdisk like Rufus (I usually use this).
Prepare the Ubuntu 16.04.4 LTS Desktop ISO file that you have downloaded earlier.
Finally, make a bootable USB flash using Rufus by inserting the Ubuntu 16.04.4 LTS Desktop ISO file. For a tutorial how to boot a flashdisk using Rufus you can read here.
Well, after you set up bootable USB flashdisk, now it’s time you install Ubuntu on your laptop / PC. Notice the steps below.
1. Plug the flash into your laptop. Restart your computer and press F2, Esc, F12 or any other button (depending on your PC / laptop settings respectively) to enter the computer’s BIOS.
2. After entering the BIOS, select the “Boot” tab. Well, in Boot Option Priorities, place the bootable flash in the top position as shown below. Meanwhile, for others just follow the most important only bootable flash.
3. Select Save and Exit tab, press Enter on Save and Exit option then laptop / PC will restart automatically or press F10 key on keyboard.
Next, wait for the Ubuntu installation process.
5. Select the language to use during the installation process. Here, I chose English (default) to make it more understandable. Then, click Install Ubuntu.
6. If you are connected to the internet, you can check the Install third-party software for graphics and Wi-Fi hardware, Flash, MP3 and other media. You can also check the Download update while installing Ubuntu section if you are sure your internet connection is fast because if you choose this option then the installation process runs long because all updates and possibly can error if suddenly internet connection lost. Then, click Continue. But, if you do not have an internet connection, just click Continue without any tick.
7. In the Installation type, select Something else and then click Continue. You can choose another option according to your needs, here I choose Something else so I can create my own partition so the data in Windows (because my laptop is dual-boot) is not formatted.
8. Now, we go to the partition. As in the picture below, we do not have any partitions before. Click New Partition Table to start creating a new partition.
9. Click Continue
10. Here, we I have a capacity of 10 GB which will be divided into 2 partitions. In the first partition the Swap Area is used by the system as a backup memory if the system runs out of memory and on the second partition is Root to store personal data and where Ubuntu is installed. To create a partition click the plus sign (+).
(Note: You create a Home partition to specifically store personal files like music, pictures, and documents Here, I did not add but make it one with Root)
11. First, we will create a Swap partition. Determine the size of this partition to your liking but I suggest not too big. Here my Swap size is 1GB. Then, select “Primary” and then select “Beginning of this space”. In the Use as box select “swap area”. In my opinion, swap area partition is a very important partition (must exist). Then click OK.
12. The result will look like in the picture below. Then, select the free space section, then click add or plus sign (+) as shown.
13. Secondly, we will create a Root partition. Then, select “Logical” and select “Beginning of this space”. In the Use as box choose “Ext4 journaling file system” and in the Mount point box select /. Click OK.
14. The result will look like in the picture below. There are 2 pieces of partition that is swap area and /. Click Install Now.
16. Click Continue.
18. For time zone, I choose Medan (where I am), then click Continue.
19. Select keyboard input language here I choose English (US).
20. Next, fill in the data for the complete user as shown below. When done, click Continue.
21. Wait until the process of installing and copying the operating system data is complete. It usually takes about 10-30 minutes.
22. After the installation process is complete. Click Restart Now.
23. Well, now you have successfully installed Ubuntu on your laptop / PC. Enter the password you created earlier to log into Ubuntu.
24. The Ubuntu interface will look like the one shown below. Cool, is not it?
That’s the steps how to install linux Ubuntu on your laptop / PC. For those of you who find obstacles in the Ubuntu installation process, do not hesitate to ask through the comments box that has been provided. Hopefully the above article useful and good luck. Thank you!
Shopping is a hobby of most women. Without realizing it, the purchased goods collect in large quantities. Apparently, certain items that are often purchased this can be a profitable investment in the future. Anything? The following reviews as quoted from hargapromosupermarket.com :1. Jewelry
Women are known as a creature who likes to preen. Therefore, it is not strange promo alfamart if little by little jewelry collected into a collection.
Consciously or unconsciously, by bit by bit buying jewelry, both from precious metal and precious stone, the women concerned are investing promising for the future.
In Dailymail.co.uk reported by an average woman in a regularly investing jewelry will have a treasure trove in the future. On the site mentioned that the average jewelry will be worth up to £ 6,000 or approximately Rp 102 million and this number will continue to increase over time.
A very fantastic number promo alfamidi is not it ?! This is because the value of each collection increases by about £ 2,000 (Rp 34 million) in ten years.
2. Branded Shoes
For the fashion enthusiast , of course shoes to be goods that must matching with the clothes worn. Not infrequently the fashionista has a lot of pair of shoes with various models that eventually rarely used.
Branded shoes can hold value that can increase in the future. Shoe collectors will be willing to buy vintage footwear at a high price promo carrefour. Usually the sale of shoes like this is done on auction sites like eBay on the eventcertain.
3. Branded Beautiful Bags
Similar to shoes, bags are also items that can be mixed and match for women who like to appear hits with the latest fashion. However, not all branded bags can be a promising investment.
Some of them dropped in value very quickly, Valextra, Tod’s, Versace, Etro, Marni, Alexander Wang, 3.1 Philip Lim, and Marc Jacob.
Bags from Channel brand, Louis Vuitton, Hermes, Christian Louboutin, Cartier, David Yurman, Alaia, Van Cleef & Arpels, and Goyard have steadily stable values. The best investments for women’s bags are Givency, Victoria Beckham, Charlotte Olympia and Alexander McQueen for having a high sale price promo giant.
There are many women who love to read books to fill their leisure time. Mareka also includes people who still often buy books in physical form even though now many editions of eBooks .
Apparently, the book can also be a profitable investment, especially the original printed books of the first edition of a classic story especially if the condition is well preserved. For example, the novel by John Kennedy Toole first published in 1980 is now worth up to $ 4,000 (Rp 52 million). The investment value of a used classic book will be much higher if it is affixed by the authors’ signature.
5. Movie Posters
For film fans, not infrequently who collect posters of movies that they like to just be a display in their bedroom. However, who would have thought a sheet of a film poster that is not expensive can be a lucrative investment in the future.
Old school films, in particular, can have tremendous price increases potential. This is because posters of vintage films were made in the days before the boom of digital media so that the number of such posters is very rare.
To reload a photo promo indomaret from a vintage moviewill cost so much that the poster is almost impossible to produce again. This is the attraction for rare goods collectors who will raise the value of vintage film posters . For example, the “Pulp Fiction” movie poster, worth less than US $ 100, is now worth US $ 1,000.
Laravel is a very popular free, open source PHP framework created by Taylor Otwell and is intended to make it easy to build web applications by following a model-view-controller (MVC) architecture.
In this paper, I want to share a guide how to install Laravel steps in Linux Mint. Hopefully this article is easy to understand especially for readers who want to learn PHP web programming using Laravel Framework.
1. System Update
Before starting, we make sure first if our Linux has been updated
to check and update the system we can use apt update command,
$ sudo apt update
2. Install Package Dependencies and Composer
The next step I used to do to install laravel to web server-I use
lampp-, is to install the Composer app. The name of this latter app (Composer), I will later make a bridge to download Laravel to the web server -If you have not installed xampp on Linux, follow the tutorial how to install xampp here -.
To download Composer we need curl, and we also need php7.0-cli to install and run Composer. In addition to these two packages we also need Git which will be used by Composer to download dependencies. The three packages I mentioned above can be installed simultaneously by typing this command in the terminal:
$ sudo apt-get install curl php7.0-cli git
then install the php dependencies that will be needed to run Laravel
Since we have installed the curl, we will now call it to install the composer.
$ curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | sudo php – -install-dir = / usr / local / bin -filename = composer
The above command to download and install Composer in / usr / local / bin.
The output will look like this:
To test whether the Composer install has been successful, please type the command running Composer
If you get a more or less similar look like this, it means that Composer has been successfully installed on your system.
3. Install Laravel Through Composer
After Composer successfully installed, the next step is to install Laravel through the Composer that we have installed. The trick is very easy, first move to the htdocts folder (if using Xampp), then type the command to create a new folder in which Laravel will be loaded, by typing the create-project composer in the terminal:
Installing programs in a Linux distro such as CentOS or RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux) is just typing the yum install command followed by the package name. But not all programs are in the default repository.
Well … for that sometimes we need to add another repository that offers more free and open source software. The most common is the Fedora-managed EPEL (Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux) repository and can be utilized by a single Linux distro (RHEL, CentOS, Oracle Linux, Scientific Linux), so CentOS is not limited.
The easiest and most recommended way to first try is to install it via yum, and the command is:
yum install epel-release
But this requires the CentOS Extras repository on your server, eg nothing or you failed then we can add it manually depending on the version and architecture of the CentOS you are using.
This morning when I checked the PHP script for automatic backup of WordPress to DropBox and I got the error message “Problem with the SSL CA cert (path? Access rights?)”, This problem has been going on for almost a month. 🙁 Luckily it gets caught now rather than late and does not have any backups.
So there are 3 related factors, namely cURL is used by PHP and interact with resource via TLS / SSL protocol. After finding out here and there I get one solution that can be applied immediately.
Before trying the way below please try to reboot your VPS first, just type reboot command and ENTER key followed in your shell. If it still fails also resolve this error then please try the solution below.
Please login to your VPS and download the SSL certificate bundle with cURL:
Linux is a free operating system that is a derivative of Unix, many developers and the Linux community in the world. Linux is known to be difficult to use than Windows OS, For friends who are learning to use Linux basic commands on Linux terminals, we must know because we will use them to operate the Linux system.
Here’s a complete set of Linux basics commands in the terminal:
adduser = Add user to the system
addgroup = Add group to the system
alias = Create an alias
apropos = Search Help man page (man-k)
apt-get = Find and install the software package (Debian)
aspell = SpellChecker
awk = Search and Replace text, database sort / validate / index
basename = Strip directory and suffix of filename
bash = GNU Bourne-Again Shell
bc = Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg = Send to background
break = Exit a loop
builtin = Run shell builtin
bzip2 = Compress or decompression file named (s)
cal = Show calendar
case = conditional commands
cat = Displays the contents of the file
cd = Changing the Directories
cfdisk = The manipulator partition table for Linux
chgrp = Change group ownership
chmod = Change access permissions
chown = Changes the file and group owners
chroot = Run the command with a different root directory
chkconfig = System service (run level)
cksum = Print byte CRC checksum and calculate
clear = Delete terminal screen
cmp = Compare two files
comm = Compare two files sorted by line by line
command = Run command – shell ignore function
continue = Resume next iteration of a loop
cp = Copy one or more files to another location
cron = Daemon executes the scheduled command
crontab = Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit = Split files into context – specified pieces
cut = split the file into sections
date = Display or change date & time
dc = Desk Calculator
dd = Convert and copy files, write disk headers, boot record
ddrescue = Tool to repair data
declare = Declare variables and give them attributes
df = Show disk space
diff = Show differences between two files
diff3 = Show differences between the three files
dig = DNS lookup
dir = List of short directory contents
dircolors = Color setup for ls’
dirname = Convert all pathname to multiple paths
dirs = Show list of remembered directories
dmesg = Print kernel & driver messages
du = Estimated use of file capacity
echo = Display a message on the screen
egrep = Search the file for the line corresponding to the extended expression
eject = Remove removable media
enable = Enables and disables the builtin shell command
env = Environment variable
ethtool = Ethernet card settings
eval = Evaluate some commands / arguments
exec = Run command
exit = Exit the shell
expect = automate applications that are freely accessible on the terminal
expand = Convert tab to a space
export = Set environment variable
expr = Evaluate expression
false = Did not do anything, did not work
fdformat = Low-level format of a floppy disk
fdisk = partition table manipulator for Linux
fg = Send job to foreground
fgrep = Find files for rows that match fixed strings
file = Specify file type
find = Search for files that meet the desired criteria
fmt = Re-type the text type
fold = Wrap text to fit a certain width.
for = Expand the words, and run the command
format = Format disk or cassette
free = Show memory usage
fsck = Checking and fixing the File consistency system
ftp = File Transfer Protocol
function = Define the macro function
fuser = Identify/disconnect the process that is accessing the file
gawk = Find and Replace text in the file
getopts = Outline parameters according to position
grep = Find files for rows that match a certain pattern
group = Print the name of the group to the user
gzip = Compress or decompress the file name
hash = Remembers the entire pathname of an argument name
head = Output of the first part of the file
help = Show help for built-in commands
history = Command history
hostname = Print or set the system name
id = Print user and id group
if = perform conditional commands
ifconfig = Configure the network interface
ifdown = Stop the network interface
ifup = Starts the network interface upwards
import = Capture the X server screen and save an image to a file
install = Copy files and set attributes
join = join the line in the common field
kill = Stops running processes
killall = Terminate the process by name
less = Display the output of one screen at a time
let = Perform arithmetic on the shell variable
ln = Create a relationship between files
local = Create variable
locate = Search file
logname = Print login name
logout = Sign out of a login shell
look = A line display that starts with a particular string
lpc = Printer path control program
lpr = Offline print
lprint = Print file / Print file
lprintd = Abort print job
lprintq = List of print queues
lprm = Remove the job from the print queue
ls = List information about the file
lsof = List opens the file
make = A group of Recompilation of the program
man = Manual help
mkdir = Create a new folder
mkfifo = Create FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs = Create hybrid ISO9660 / JOLIET / HFS filesystem
mknod = Create a special file block or character
more = Display one screen output at a time
mount = Mount file system
mtools = Manipulating MS-DOS files
mv = Move or rename a file or directory
mmv = Move mass and rename (file)
netstat = Network Information
nice = Set the priority of a command or a job
nl = Line number and write file
nohup = Execute command immune to hangups
nslookup = Query Internet calls the server interactively
notify-send = Send desktop notifications
open = open the file in the default app
op = Access operator
passwd Modify the user password
paste = Merge file lines
pathchk = Check the portability file name
ping = Test network connection
pkill = stop running process
popd = Returns the previous value of the current directory
pr = Prepare files to print / print
printcap = Database printing capability
printenv = Print environment variable
printf = Format and print data
ps = Process Status
pushd = Save and then change the current directory
pwd = Knowing the directory we are in
quota = Displays disk usage and limits it
quotacheck = Examines the file system for disk usage
quotactl = Set disk quota
ram = ram disk device
rcp = Copy files between two machines
read = Reads the line from the standard input
readarray = Read from stdin to array variable
readonly = Marking a variable / function as readonly
reboot = Reboot the system
rename = Rename the file
renice = Change the priority of the running process
remsync = Remote sync files via email
return = Exit shell function
rev = Reverse the line from a file
rm = Delete the file
rmdir = Remove folder
rsync = Remote file copy (Synchronize file tree)
screen = Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp = Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff = Merge two files interactively
sed = Stream Editor
select = Receive keyboard input
seq = Print numerical sequence
set = Manipulate shell and function variables
sftp = Secure File Transfer Program
shift = Shift of position parameters
shopt = Shell option
shutdown = Shutdown or restart linux
sleep = Delay/delay for a certain period
slocate = Search file
sort = Sort text file
source = Run command from the file. ”
Split Split file into fixed-cut
ssh = Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace = Trace system calls and signals
su = Replace user identity
sudo = Run the command as another user
sum = Prints the checksum for the file
symlink = Create a new name for the file
sync = Sync data on disk with memory
tail = Output of the last part of the file
tar = Tape Archiver
tee = Redirect output to multiple files
test = Evaluation of conditional expressions
time = Program Measures running time
times = User and system time
touch = Change timestamps file
top = List of processes running on the system
traceroute = Trace Route to Host
trap = Run command when a signal is set (Bourne)
tr = Translate, squeeze, and / or delete characters
true = Do nothing, succeed
tsort = Topology sort
tty = Print filename from the terminal on stdin
type = explain the command
ulimit = Limit user resources (resources)
umask = The user creates hidden files
umount = Unmount (not up) device
unalias = Remove alias
uname = Print system information
unexpand = Convert spaces for tabs
Uniq = Uniquify file
unit = Convert units from one scale to another
unset = Remove variable or function name
unshar = Unpack the record of the shell archive
until = Execute command (until error)
useradd = Create a new user account
usermod = Modify user account
users = List of currently logged in users
uuencode = Encode binary files
uudecode = Decode file created by uuencode
v = List of contents of the directory Verbosely (ls-l-b ‘)
vdir = List of contents of the directory Verbosely (ls-l-b ‘)
vi = Text Editor
vim = Text Editor
vmstat = Report of virtual memory statistics
watch = Execute / show a program periodically
wc = Print bytes, words, and count rows
whereis = Search user $ path, man page and source file for the program
which = Find user $ path for program file
while = Run command
who = Print all the usernames that are logged in
whoami = Print current user and id name (`id-un ‘)
wget = Fetch web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write = Send a message to another user
xargs = Run the utility, passing through the list of built arguments
xdg-open = Open the file or URL in the app that the user likes.
yes = Print the string until the interrupt
. = Script runs the current shell command
zip = Package zip and compress (archive) files
!! = Run the last command again
### = Comment / Remark
./ = The command runs the program
In terminal when creating or editing the file:
In vi editor or another editor there are two modes, COMMAND mode for command and INSERT mode for typing.
Press ESC key to move to COMMAND mode
Press the INSERT button to switch to INSERT mode
Save, move to COMMAND mode and type: w
Save and Exit: wq
Exit: q or: q!
How to get into hard drive/hard disk/partition
we must first see the partition by typing
# fdisk -l or # ls / dev
Usually, before we can get in the partition is required to mount the partition.
After the list of the / dev directory is displayed see the partition we want to mount. Suppose we decided to mount the dev partition sda1. Flash using sdc name, sdc1 etc.
# mount / dev / sda1 / mnt
Explanation: mount is the command being/dev/sda1 is the location of the device to be mounted. And / mnt is the destination directory of the mount.
6. Now the contents of the sda1 directory we can see in the mount / mnt directory. Type:
# ls / mnt
it will show list from sda1
7. To remove the drive. Type:
# umount / dev / sda1
Usually for desktop partition linux contained in / media (but must be mounted first)
# cd / media
to view all partitions.
To delete files and folders in the trash
# rm -rf ~ / .local / share / Trash / files
#rm -rf ~ / .local / share / Trash / files / *
To view the contents of the trash
# ls ~ / .local / share / Trash