Category: Tutorial

How to Setting and Configure IP Address on Debian Server Linux

Internet Protocol Address or often abbreviated IP is a series of binary numbers between 32-bit to 128-bit which is used as an identification address for each host computer in the Internet network. The length of this number is 32-bit (for IPv4 or IP version 4), and 128-bit (for IPv6 or IP version 6) indicating the address of the computer on a TCP / IP-based Internet network. Then for IP addressing system is divided into two, namely IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP version 6 (IPv6).

On this occasion I will invite all buddies to discuss about how to configure or configure IP Address on linux debian server. Previously my friend need to prepare linux debian server that has been installed in your PC. well, I will exemplify this tutorial with practice using virtualbox, actually just the same way kok with the original. Okay before What is the purpose of Addressing IP Address it? So, the purpose of IP addressing is intended to computer computers (Server and Client) can be connected to each other.

Okay we just start from turning on the computer that has been installed Debian Server. Then we will give the IP address for the server computer. Once turned on and logged in as root, type the “nano / etc / network / interfaces” command to enter the Debian IP address configuration. For more details, see the picture below.

Then after typing this command, please press “enter” to enter Debian IP address configuration. For Debian IP address, can be set according to the wishes and needs of my friend. But for the IP network, netmask, and broadcast we must follow the rules of Subnetting (do not miss it!), I’m sure you all know how to use subnetting rules. For example as below.

To configure the IP Address address, enter the configuration as given white box in the above picture sob. If so, then press “Ctrl + X” simultaneously then press “y” then “enter” to save the configuration you made earlier.

In the next step, type the “service networking restart” command to restart the system and to have the configuration pre-installed. After restarting the network interface it will show a notice like the picture below which means the restart process is successful and the IP has changed.

Then if the notification appears like the picture before, then we will continue to the process of checking IP address. First, we check it from his Debian Server computer. The way we just type the command “ifconfig” like this.

If the IP address is correct, we proceed to the IP addressing process on the Client computer (I’m using Windows 7). For how to configure it, see picture below.

If already entered in window like picture above, click “Properties”.

After clicking “Properties” window will appear like this. Since the IP used is IP v4, then we click “Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP / IPv4)”. Then, the IP configuration must be aligned and in line with the IP on the Server so that they can be connected to each other.

When you’re done configuring your Client’s IP computer, click “Ok” and then close the IP configuration window. Then we will continue to check the connection between the server with the client. The trick, open “Command Prompt” in Windows (Client) and then type “ping 192.168.18.1”. The IP written is the IP of the Server (192.168.18.1). If successful it will be like the one marked with a yellow box. IP Address is the IP that I created on my server, so my friend can create a different IP and to check using ping adjusted only.

If it fails, then the result will be like this omdimas.

Well, if the result is like the first Command Prompt image, then the configuration IP address that has been buddy for successful and running well. Hopefully what I explained above, my friend can all understand and immediately practice. Thank you and good luck.

mrlinux

November 6, 2017

Linux is a free operating system that is a derivative of Unix, many developers and the Linux community in the world. Linux is known to be difficult to use than Windows OS, For friends who are learning to use Linux basic commands on Linux terminals, we must know because we will use them to operate the Linux system.

Collection of Linux Commands in Terminal Complete

Here’s a complete set of Linux basics commands in the terminal:

A
adduser = Add user to the system
addgroup = Add group to the system
alias = Create an alias
apropos = Search Help man page (man-k)
apt-get = Find and install the software package (Debian)
aspell = SpellChecker
awk = Search and Replace text, database sort / validate / index

B
basename = Strip directory and suffix of filename
bash = GNU Bourne-Again Shell
bc = Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg = Send to background
break = Exit a loop
builtin = Run shell builtin
bzip2 = Compress or decompression file named (s)

C
cal = Show calendar
case = conditional commands
cat = Displays the contents of the file
cd = Changing the Directories
cfdisk = The manipulator partition table for Linux
chgrp = Change group ownership
chmod = Change access permissions
chown = Changes the file and group owners
chroot = Run the command with a different root directory
chkconfig = System service (run level)
cksum = Print byte CRC checksum and calculate
clear = Delete terminal screen
cmp = Compare two files
comm = Compare two files sorted by line by line
command = Run command – shell ignore function
continue = Resume next iteration of a loop
cp = Copy one or more files to another location
cron = Daemon executes the scheduled command
crontab = Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit = Split files into context – specified pieces
cut = split the file into sections

D
date = Display or change date & time
dc = Desk Calculator
dd = Convert and copy files, write disk headers, boot record
ddrescue = Tool to repair data
declare = Declare variables and give them attributes
df = Show disk space
diff = Show differences between two files
diff3 = Show differences between the three files
dig = DNS lookup
dir = List of short directory contents
dircolors = Color setup for ls’
dirname = Convert all pathname to multiple paths
dirs = Show list of remembered directories
dmesg = Print kernel & driver messages
du = Estimated use of file capacity

E
echo = Display a message on the screen
egrep = Search the file for the line corresponding to the extended expression
eject = Remove removable media
enable = Enables and disables the builtin shell command
env = Environment variable
ethtool = Ethernet card settings
eval = Evaluate some commands / arguments
exec = Run command
exit = Exit the shell
expect = automate applications that are freely accessible on the terminal
expand = Convert tab to a space
export = Set environment variable
expr = Evaluate expression

F
false = Did not do anything, did not work
fdformat = Low-level format of a floppy disk
fdisk = partition table manipulator for Linux
fg = Send job to foreground
fgrep = Find files for rows that match fixed strings
file = Specify file type
find = Search for files that meet the desired criteria
fmt = Re-type the text type
fold = Wrap text to fit a certain width.
for = Expand the words, and run the command
format = Format disk or cassette
free = Show memory usage
fsck = Checking and fixing the File consistency system
ftp = File Transfer Protocol
function = Define the macro function
fuser = Identify/disconnect the process that is accessing the file

G
gawk = Find and Replace text in the file
getopts = Outline parameters according to position
grep = Find files for rows that match a certain pattern
group = Print the name of the group to the user
gzip = Compress or decompress the file name

H
hash = Remembers the entire pathname of an argument name
head = Output of the first part of the file
help = Show help for built-in commands
history = Command history
hostname = Print or set the system name

I.
id = Print user and id group
if = perform conditional commands
ifconfig = Configure the network interface
ifdown = Stop the network interface
ifup = Starts the network interface upwards
import = Capture the X server screen and save an image to a file
install = Copy files and set attributes

J
join = join the line in the common field

K
kill = Stops running processes
killall = Terminate the process by name

L
less = Display the output of one screen at a time
let = Perform arithmetic on the shell variable
ln = Create a relationship between files
local = Create variable
locate = Search file
logname = Print login name
logout = Sign out of a login shell
look = A line display that starts with a particular string
lpc = Printer path control program
lpr = Offline print
lprint = Print file / Print file
lprintd = Abort print job
lprintq = List of print queues
lprm = Remove the job from the print queue
ls = List information about the file
lsof = List opens the file

M
make = A group of Recompilation of the program
man = Manual help
mkdir = Create a new folder
mkfifo = Create FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs = Create hybrid ISO9660 / JOLIET / HFS filesystem
mknod = Create a special file block or character
more = Display one screen output at a time
mount = Mount file system
mtools = Manipulating MS-DOS files
mv = Move or rename a file or directory
mmv = Move mass and rename (file)

N
netstat = Network Information
nice = Set the priority of a command or a job
nl = Line number and write file
nohup = Execute command immune to hangups
nslookup = Query Internet calls the server interactively
notify-send = Send desktop notifications

O
open = open the file in the default app
op = Access operator

P
passwd Modify the user password
paste = Merge file lines
pathchk = Check the portability file name
ping = Test network connection
pkill = stop running process
popd = Returns the previous value of the current directory
pr = Prepare files to print / print
printcap = Database printing capability
printenv = Print environment variable
printf = Format and print data
ps = Process Status
pushd = Save and then change the current directory
pwd = Knowing the directory we are in

Q
quota = Displays disk usage and limits it
quotacheck = Examines the file system for disk usage
quotactl = Set disk quota

R
ram = ram disk device
rcp = Copy files between two machines
read = Reads the line from the standard input
readarray = Read from stdin to array variable
readonly = Marking a variable / function as readonly
reboot = Reboot the system
rename = Rename the file
renice = Change the priority of the running process
remsync = Remote sync files via email
return = Exit shell function
rev = Reverse the line from a file
rm = Delete the file
rmdir = Remove folder
rsync = Remote file copy (Synchronize file tree)

S
screen = Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp = Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff = Merge two files interactively
sed = Stream Editor
select = Receive keyboard input
seq = Print numerical sequence
set = Manipulate shell and function variables
sftp = Secure File Transfer Program
shift = Shift of position parameters
shopt = Shell option
shutdown = Shutdown or restart linux
sleep = Delay/delay for a certain period
slocate = Search file
sort = Sort text file
source = Run command from the file. ”
Split Split file into fixed-cut
ssh = Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace = Trace system calls and signals
su = Replace user identity
sudo = Run the command as another user
sum = Prints the checksum for the file
symlink = Create a new name for the file
sync = Sync data on disk with memory

T
tail = Output of the last part of the file
tar = Tape Archiver
tee = Redirect output to multiple files
test = Evaluation of conditional expressions
time = Program Measures running time
times = User and system time
touch = Change timestamps file
top = List of processes running on the system
traceroute = Trace Route to Host
trap = Run command when a signal is set (Bourne)
tr = Translate, squeeze, and / or delete characters
true = Do nothing, succeed
tsort = Topology sort
tty = Print filename from the terminal on stdin
type = explain the command

U
ulimit = Limit user resources (resources)
umask = The user creates hidden files
umount = Unmount (not up) device
unalias = Remove alias
uname = Print system information
unexpand = Convert spaces for tabs
Uniq = Uniquify file
unit = Convert units from one scale to another
unset = Remove variable or function name
unshar = Unpack the record of the shell archive
until = Execute command (until error)
useradd = Create a new user account
usermod = Modify user account
users = List of currently logged in users
uuencode = Encode binary files
uudecode = Decode file created by uuencode

V
v = List of contents of the directory Verbosely (ls-l-b ‘)

vdir = List of contents of the directory Verbosely (ls-l-b ‘)
vi = Text Editor
vim = Text Editor
vmstat = Report of virtual memory statistics

W watch = Execute / show a program periodically wc = Print bytes, words, and count rows whereis = Search user $ path, man page and source file for the program which = Find user $ path for program file while = Run command who = Print all the usernames that are logged in whoami = Print current user and id name (`id-un ‘) wget = Fetch web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP write = Send a message to another user

X
xargs = Run the utility, passing through the list of built arguments
xdg-open = Open the file or URL in the app that the user likes.

Y
yes = Print the string until the interrupt
. = Script runs the current shell command
zip = Package zip and compress (archive) files
!! = Run the last command again
### = Comment / Remark
./ = The command runs the program

In terminal when creating or editing the file:
In vi editor or another editor there are two modes, COMMAND mode for command and INSERT mode for typing.
Press ESC key to move to COMMAND mode
Press the INSERT button to switch to INSERT mode
Save, move to COMMAND mode and type: w
Save and Exit: wq
Exit: q or: q!

How to get into hard drive/hard disk/partition
we must first see the partition by typing

# fdisk -l or # ls / dev

Usually, before we can get in the partition is required to mount the partition.

After the list of the / dev directory is displayed see the partition we want to mount. Suppose we decided to mount the dev partition sda1. Flash using sdc name, sdc1 etc.

Then type:

# mount / dev / sda1 / mnt

Explanation: mount is the command being/dev/sda1 is the location of the device to be mounted. And / mnt is the destination directory of the mount.

6. Now the contents of the sda1 directory we can see in the mount / mnt directory. Type:

# ls / mnt

it will show list from sda1

7. To remove the drive. Type:

# umount / dev / sda1

Usually for desktop partition linux contained in / media (but must be mounted first)

# cd / media

to view all partitions.

# ls

To delete files and folders in the trash

# rm -rf ~ / .local / share / Trash / files

#rm -rf ~ / .local / share / Trash / files / *

To view the contents of the trash
# ls ~ / .local / share / Trash

I hope this helps

40 Basic Commands On Complete Linux System Operation With Syntax and Functions

Learn Commands Basic Commands On Complete Linux System Operation With Syntax and Functions

Linux is a free open source operating system software to be distributed under the GNU license. Linux operating systems are known as Linux distributions or Linux distributions include support software such as web servers, programming languages, databases, desktop displays such as GNOME, KDE and Xfce also have office suite suites (office suite) such as Open Office.org, KOffice, Abiword.

Once we know the history and understanding Linux, this time we will learn the basic commands of Linux. Because to execute on many Linux applications using basic commands. Here are some basic commands found on Linux.
Basic Linux Commands

  1. sudo su
    Serves to login as root / highest user
    syntax: sudo su
  2. root
    Serves to login as root
    syntax: root
  3. login
    Serves to login as another user, but must be root first to run this command bias.
    Syntax: login nama_user
  4. cd (change directory)
    Serves to switch directories / folders
    syntax: cd address_directory
    example: cd / etc / network
  5. pwd
    Serves to show which directory our position is
    syntax: pwd
  6. ls (list)
    Serves to view the contents of a directory
    syntax: ls
  7. mv (move)
    Serves to move, cut or rename files
    syntax: mv / directory / nama_file_asal / nama_file_baru
    example: mv /etc/file1.txt file2.txt >>> rename file
    mv /etc/file1.txt / var / www >>> cut file
  8. mkdir (make directory)
    Works to create a new folder
    syntax: mkdir nama_folder
    example: mkdir folder1
  9. rmdir (remove directory)
    Function to delete folder
    syntax: rmdir nama_folder
    example: rmdir folder1
  10. touch
    Works to create new files
    syntax: touch filename
  11. rm (remove)
    Serves to delete files
    syntax: rm file1.txt
  12. more
    Serves to display the contents of a file
    syntax: more file_name
  13. echo
    Serves to write a word or phrase to a file
    syntax: echo “message content” file_name
  14. aduser
    Serves to add new users
    syntax: adduser nama_user
    deluser
    Serves to remove the user from the system
    syntax: deluser nama_user
  15. addgroup
    Function to add new group
    syntax: addgroup nama_group
  16. lsusb
    Serves to see the USB device that is connected computer
    syntax: lsusb
  17. lpci
    Serves to view connected PCI devices
    syntax: lpci
  18. lshw
    Serves to view computer hardware
    syntax: lshw
  19. dmesg
    Serves to see the hardware that is being activity
    syntax: dmesg
  20. top
    Serves to see running processes like task manager in windows
    syntax: top
  21. cpuinfo
    Serves to view computer specifications
    syntax: cpuinfo
  22. meminfo
    Serves to view RAM status
    syntax: more / proc / meminfo
  23. clear
    Serves to clean the screen
    syntax: clear
  24. halt
    Serves to turn off computer (must as root)
    syntax: halt
  25. reboot
    used to restart the computer (must as root)
    syntax: reboot
  26. exit
    Serves to exit the terminal
    syntax: exit
  27. wget
    Serves to download via terminal
    syntax: wget link_download
  28. ifconfig
    Serves to view Ethernet/network card configuration
    syntax: ifconfig
  29. apt-get
    Serves to obtain the package/software from ubuntu repository online
    syntax: apt-get nama_paket
    example: apt-get install dhcp3-server
  30. tar
    Serves to extract files
    syntax: tar [parameter] file_name
  31. nautulis
    Works to open the GUI view directly
    syntax: nautulis
    example: sudo nautulis >>> using GUI mode with root)
  32. df -h
    Serves to see the remaining hard drive capacity
    syntax: df -h
  33. who
    Serves to see our login name
    syntax: who
  34. cat
    Serves to open the file
    syntax: cat file_name
  35. date
    Serves to view dates
    syntax: date
  36. cal
    Serves to view the calendar
    syntax: cal
  37. hostname
    Serves to display computer name
    syntax: hostname
  38. free
    Works for free memory
    syntax: free
  39. history
    Serves to see what commands ever typed
    syntax: history
  40. chomod +X
    Serves to extract files into parts of the system

Thus the information provided may be useful. I hope you like it!