mrlinux

November 6, 2017

Linux is a free operating system that is a derivative of Unix, many developers and the Linux community in the world. Linux is known to be difficult to use than Windows OS, For friends who are learning to use Linux basic commands on Linux terminals, we must know because we will use them to operate the Linux system.

Collection of Linux Commands in Terminal Complete

Here’s a complete set of Linux basics commands in the terminal:

A
adduser = Add user to the system
addgroup = Add group to the system
alias = Create an alias
apropos = Search Help man page (man-k)
apt-get = Find and install the software package (Debian)
aspell = SpellChecker
awk = Search and Replace text, database sort / validate / index

B
basename = Strip directory and suffix of filename
bash = GNU Bourne-Again Shell
bc = Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg = Send to background
break = Exit a loop
builtin = Run shell builtin
bzip2 = Compress or decompression file named (s)

C
cal = Show calendar
case = conditional commands
cat = Displays the contents of the file
cd = Changing the Directories
cfdisk = The manipulator partition table for Linux
chgrp = Change group ownership
chmod = Change access permissions
chown = Changes the file and group owners
chroot = Run the command with a different root directory
chkconfig = System service (run level)
cksum = Print byte CRC checksum and calculate
clear = Delete terminal screen
cmp = Compare two files
comm = Compare two files sorted by line by line
command = Run command – shell ignore function
continue = Resume next iteration of a loop
cp = Copy one or more files to another location
cron = Daemon executes the scheduled command
crontab = Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit = Split files into context – specified pieces
cut = split the file into sections

D
date = Display or change date & time
dc = Desk Calculator
dd = Convert and copy files, write disk headers, boot record
ddrescue = Tool to repair data
declare = Declare variables and give them attributes
df = Show disk space
diff = Show differences between two files
diff3 = Show differences between the three files
dig = DNS lookup
dir = List of short directory contents
dircolors = Color setup for ls’
dirname = Convert all pathname to multiple paths
dirs = Show list of remembered directories
dmesg = Print kernel & driver messages
du = Estimated use of file capacity

E
echo = Display a message on the screen
egrep = Search the file for the line corresponding to the extended expression
eject = Remove removable media
enable = Enables and disables the builtin shell command
env = Environment variable
ethtool = Ethernet card settings
eval = Evaluate some commands / arguments
exec = Run command
exit = Exit the shell
expect = automate applications that are freely accessible on the terminal
expand = Convert tab to a space
export = Set environment variable
expr = Evaluate expression

F
false = Did not do anything, did not work
fdformat = Low-level format of a floppy disk
fdisk = partition table manipulator for Linux
fg = Send job to foreground
fgrep = Find files for rows that match fixed strings
file = Specify file type
find = Search for files that meet the desired criteria
fmt = Re-type the text type
fold = Wrap text to fit a certain width.
for = Expand the words, and run the command
format = Format disk or cassette
free = Show memory usage
fsck = Checking and fixing the File consistency system
ftp = File Transfer Protocol
function = Define the macro function
fuser = Identify/disconnect the process that is accessing the file

G
gawk = Find and Replace text in the file
getopts = Outline parameters according to position
grep = Find files for rows that match a certain pattern
group = Print the name of the group to the user
gzip = Compress or decompress the file name

H
hash = Remembers the entire pathname of an argument name
head = Output of the first part of the file
help = Show help for built-in commands
history = Command history
hostname = Print or set the system name

I.
id = Print user and id group
if = perform conditional commands
ifconfig = Configure the network interface
ifdown = Stop the network interface
ifup = Starts the network interface upwards
import = Capture the X server screen and save an image to a file
install = Copy files and set attributes

J
join = join the line in the common field

K
kill = Stops running processes
killall = Terminate the process by name

L
less = Display the output of one screen at a time
let = Perform arithmetic on the shell variable
ln = Create a relationship between files
local = Create variable
locate = Search file
logname = Print login name
logout = Sign out of a login shell
look = A line display that starts with a particular string
lpc = Printer path control program
lpr = Offline print
lprint = Print file / Print file
lprintd = Abort print job
lprintq = List of print queues
lprm = Remove the job from the print queue
ls = List information about the file
lsof = List opens the file

M
make = A group of Recompilation of the program
man = Manual help
mkdir = Create a new folder
mkfifo = Create FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs = Create hybrid ISO9660 / JOLIET / HFS filesystem
mknod = Create a special file block or character
more = Display one screen output at a time
mount = Mount file system
mtools = Manipulating MS-DOS files
mv = Move or rename a file or directory
mmv = Move mass and rename (file)

 

N
netstat = Network Information
nice = Set the priority of a command or a job
nl = Line number and write file
nohup = Execute command immune to hangups
nslookup = Query Internet calls the server interactively
notify-send = Send desktop notifications

O
open = open the file in the default app
op = Access operator

P
passwd Modify the user password
paste = Merge file lines
pathchk = Check the portability file name
ping = Test network connection
pkill = stop running process
popd = Returns the previous value of the current directory
pr = Prepare files to print / print
printcap = Database printing capability
printenv = Print environment variable
printf = Format and print data
ps = Process Status
pushd = Save and then change the current directory
pwd = Knowing the directory we are in

Q
quota = Displays disk usage and limits it
quotacheck = Examines the file system for disk usage
quotactl = Set disk quota

R
ram = ram disk device
rcp = Copy files between two machines
read = Reads the line from the standard input
readarray = Read from stdin to array variable
readonly = Marking a variable / function as readonly
reboot = Reboot the system
rename = Rename the file
renice = Change the priority of the running process
remsync = Remote sync files via email
return = Exit shell function
rev = Reverse the line from a file
rm = Delete the file
rmdir = Remove folder
rsync = Remote file copy (Synchronize file tree)

S
screen = Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp = Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff = Merge two files interactively
sed = Stream Editor
select = Receive keyboard input
seq = Print numerical sequence
set = Manipulate shell and function variables
sftp = Secure File Transfer Program
shift = Shift of position parameters
shopt = Shell option
shutdown = Shutdown or restart linux
sleep = Delay/delay for a certain period
slocate = Search file
sort = Sort text file
source = Run command from the file. ”
Split Split file into fixed-cut
ssh = Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace = Trace system calls and signals
su = Replace user identity
sudo = Run the command as another user
sum = Prints the checksum for the file
symlink = Create a new name for the file
sync = Sync data on disk with memory

T
tail = Output of the last part of the file
tar = Tape Archiver
tee = Redirect output to multiple files
test = Evaluation of conditional expressions
time = Program Measures running time
times = User and system time
touch = Change timestamps file
top = List of processes running on the system
traceroute = Trace Route to Host
trap = Run command when a signal is set (Bourne)
tr = Translate, squeeze, and / or delete characters
true = Do nothing, succeed
tsort = Topology sort
tty = Print filename from the terminal on stdin
type = explain the command

U
ulimit = Limit user resources (resources)
umask = The user creates hidden files
umount = Unmount (not up) device
unalias = Remove alias
uname = Print system information
unexpand = Convert spaces for tabs
Uniq = Uniquify file
unit = Convert units from one scale to another
unset = Remove variable or function name
unshar = Unpack the record of the shell archive
until = Execute command (until error)
useradd = Create a new user account
usermod = Modify user account
users = List of currently logged in users
uuencode = Encode binary files
uudecode = Decode file created by uuencode

V
v = List of contents of the directory Verbosely (ls-l-b ‘)

vdir = List of contents of the directory Verbosely (ls-l-b ‘)
vi = Text Editor
vim = Text Editor
vmstat = Report of virtual memory statistics

W
watch = Execute / show a program periodically
wc = Print bytes, words, and count rows
whereis = Search user $ path, man page and source file for the program
which = Find user $ path for program file
while = Run command
who = Print all the usernames that are logged in
whoami = Print current user and id name (`id-un ‘)
wget = Fetch web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write = Send a message to another user

X
xargs = Run the utility, passing through the list of built arguments
xdg-open = Open the file or URL in the app that the user likes.

Y
yes = Print the string until the interrupt
. = Script runs the current shell command
zip = Package zip and compress (archive) files
!! = Run the last command again
### = Comment / Remark
./ = The command runs the program

In terminal when creating or editing the file:
In vi editor or another editor there are two modes, COMMAND mode for command and INSERT mode for typing.
Press ESC key to move to COMMAND mode
Press the INSERT button to switch to INSERT mode
Save, move to COMMAND mode and type: w
Save and Exit: wq
Exit: q or: q!

How to get into hard drive/hard disk/partition
we must first see the partition by typing

# fdisk -l or # ls / dev

Usually, before we can get in the partition is required to mount the partition.

After the list of the / dev directory is displayed see the partition we want to mount. Suppose we decided to mount the dev partition sda1. Flash using sdc name, sdc1 etc.

Then type:

# mount / dev / sda1 / mnt

Explanation: mount is the command being/dev/sda1 is the location of the device to be mounted. And / mnt is the destination directory of the mount.

6. Now the contents of the sda1 directory we can see in the mount / mnt directory. Type:

# ls / mnt

it will show list from sda1

7. To remove the drive. Type:

# umount / dev / sda1

Usually for desktop partition linux contained in / media (but must be mounted first)

# cd / media

to view all partitions.

# ls

To delete files and folders in the trash

# rm -rf ~ / .local / share / Trash / files

#rm -rf ~ / .local / share / Trash / files / *

To view the contents of the trash
# ls ~ / .local / share / Trash

I hope this helps